Press officers have also confused intransigence with toughness in their dealings with the press, while journalists know less and less about their beats. “It is really, really rare to find really good reporters with the length of time on a beat it takes to master that beat,” Fratto said. Older, more experienced journalists, more expensive to hire than cub reporters, are exiting the business. Fratto argued that the rules covering government communication exist because of an “asymmetry in talent” (most officials aren’t accustomed to being interviewed) and an “asymmetry in knowledge” (official often work in silos, unaware of what other colleagues might have said). Journalists do need to have sources to whom they can turn, but they must not expect a completely open-door policy, he said.

John Verrico, president-elect of the National Association of Government Communicators, echoed Fratto’s concerns about trust. Both journalists and PAOs share the same goal: to communicate information to the public. “The government needs the media to help us in this process,” he said. “You need to be able to trust that we are giving you the complete and accurate information. And at the same time, we need to trust that you’re going to take that information, and you’re going to use it correctly and in good faith.” Public affairs officers provide indispensable technical and historical context that journalists on deadline often don’t have the time to research themselves. As for government officials, “they may be experts in their field, but they may not know how what it is they do in the lab, or on the street affects a larger policy,” he said. PAOs might “look like the bad guys, but we are in fact advocating on your behalf” to ensure “that you have every bit of information you need to write a complete story.”

With both journalists and public affairs officers trying to inform the public, what was needed, Donnelly concluded, was just a little more communication.

A summary of the presentations can be found here.

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Edirin Oputu is a former assistant editor at CJR. Follow her on Twitter @EdirinOputu