Sainte-Marie’s Clarín became the backbone of Allende’s leftist experiment, and the acerbic editor was not shy about claiming credit. ”Many people deny this for political reasons, but the reality is that the difference of votes between Allende and Alessandri [less than one and a half percentage points] would not have existed if it had not been for the action of Clarín in the campaign,”Pey says. ”Sainte-Marie said to Allende, ‘I made you president.’ He said it many times, in front of me.”

Allende, himself a man of colossal ego, reacted by distancing himself from his old friend. Sainte-Marie grew increasingly resentful of Allende’s social snubs and lack of appreciation. He responded with bouts of drinking; his marriage to a much younger woman was unraveling disastrously, and he feared a public scandal that would be seized upon by the right. Sainte-Marie had soured on his own success and wanted out.

Pey, meanwhile, had assumed a more active role in the paper. Clarín’s circulation had surged to 280,000 each weekday, overtaking El Mercurio. The paper again needed newer, faster presses to keep up. Pey took on the task of importing a modern, color rotary press. Clarín also purchased a large building (its third major piece of real estate) in the center of Santiago, near the Defense Ministry, in whose basement the press was to be installed. ”One day Saint-Marie called me and said, ‘Old friend, I have to leave, and next week is when I’m leaving. You who have been with me and have seen all of this, you should keep the paper,’ ”Pey recalls. Pey used the week to pull together his assets, borrow money, and decide to buy the paper. He made a series of payments totaling about $1.3 million. It was a fire-sale price, Pey says, because the paper was booming and the value of the buildings and new presses alone far exceeded the selling price. He traveled to Portugal, where Sainte-Marie had fled, to finalize the bill of sale.

That’s where the story gets murky and the disputes begin. Pey had documentation of the bank transfers to Sainte-Marie, the bill of sale, and stock certificates signed over by Sainte-Marie and others who appeared on corporate ownership papers. But Chile’s September 11–the Pinochet coup–intervened, forcing Pey into exile before he could register the transaction with the Superintendent of Corporations, a regulatory body.

It was a violent, chaotic time. The country was wracked with protests for and against Allende, the economy was paralyzed with inflation topping 500 percent, and the president and his coalition parties were rapidly losing control. On September 11, 1973, General Pinochet (with well-documented U.S. encouragement) overthrew the Allende government in one of the most violent military coups in Latin American history, leaving thousands dead and tens of thousands political prisoners.

Clarín and Chile’s other pro-government media were a special target. On the same day that military aircraft bombed the presidential palace, soldiers stormed into Clarín’s offices, shut down its presses, and jailed its top editors. Clarín’s front page that day, its last, trumpeted a call to resistance.

Pey was among the hundreds of Chileans who were ordered to turn themselves in to the new military authorities. Many of those who obeyed were executed. Having survived the trauma of Spain, Pey was not tempted. He hid out for several days and eventually got asylum in the Venezuelan embassy. He was allowed to leave the country under embassy protection, but his passport was taken away, in effect making him stateless.

The political cleansing of the Chilean media was total. In all, twelve print publications were closed and forty radio stations silenced. The staffs of the three television stations were purged and the stations placed under military control.

John Dinges is the co-founder of the investigative journalism center in Santiago, Chile. He has written three books about military dictatorships and human rights in Latin America. The most recent is The Condor Years: How Pinochet and his Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents. He is a professor of journalism at Columbia University.