Freedman’s piece used a lot of words to say, in essence, “Don’t believe anything you read when it comes to your health. But read as much as you can. That’s the best hope you have.” It’s awkward common sense, but in offering it, Freedman is tarring with too broad a stroke. His passing mention of Gary Taubes, whose books I publish, alludes to his New York Times Magazine piece, which argued that perhaps fats aren’t as bad for us as commonly assumed. But in two of Gary’s books, Good Calories, Bad Calories (which contains more than 100 pages of source notes and bibliography combined) and Why We Get Fat, he simply follows the science, explaining why some studies seem more solid than others. Importantly, he also makes an explicit plea that the theory he favors be tested—properly and rigorously. As Freedman sees it, that might not bring us any more wisdom than all the other studies, be they double-blind or any other form. But to me, it sets Gary apart from many of those he is lumped in with in the article. Follow the science. That’s the best we can do, and should be encouraged to do so.

Jonathan B. Segal
Vice president and senior editor
Alfred A. Knopf
New York, NY

What Freedman’s article, most health/medical writing, and most research tends to ignore is the issue of heterogeneity. Practically all studies are based on averages, most often of a select group of patients. The findings may well apply to similar patients. But a significant portion of people are outliers, and the data simply does not apply well to them.

The CATIE trial of psychoactive drugs showed that while one class of drugs works best in one group of patients, that drug often did not work well in another group of patients, who responded better to another class of drugs.

Researchers, physicians, and people who write about medicine need to begin to grapple with these issues of heterogeneity. It is the only way we are going to attain the promise of individualized medicine.

Bob Roehr
Washington, DC

Bitter taste

Helena Bottemiller’s article (“Safe at the Plate,” CJR, January/February) really resonated with my experience getting food-safety records. I have been struggling mightily with the fda’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) FOIA office this last year, during which time, countless simple inquiries like “Is my FOIA request still open?” went unanswered. At least a dozen such emails and phone calls to CVM went unanswered in the last year, as I attempted to follow up every month or so.

While this lapse may have been due to the retirement of a sick employee, it doesn’t excuse the CVM from fulfilling the requirements of the foia law. The CVM eventually did replace its FOIA officer, but the disturbing pattern of non-disclosure continues. My seven-month-old FOIA requests grow older by the day, and even simple inquiries into their status go unanswered. Thanks for raising awareness on this issue.

Tim Schwab
Washington, DC

Full disclosure

The Editors