The shortage myth typically begins with the observation that American high school students’ scores on international comparison tests in science and math lag, on average, behind other countries. That is then presented as proof that American students perform poorly overall. But Rutgers’s Hal Salzman and Georgetown’s Lindsay Lowell have exposed serious problems with the data, including differences in the definitions of student status used by various nations’ school systems that result in apples-to-oranges comparisons between students of different ages and in different grades. In addition, the US has the most diverse student population of any industrial country, with large numbers of high-scoring students and another group—largely from disadvantaged minorities—who score very low. The averages thus indicate not an overall deficit in American science and math education, but the need for serious work with our worst-performing students.

In fact, American college students have for decades shown strong and consistent interest in STEM; year after year, just under a third of all college students in this country earn degrees in those subjects. But, ironically, dismal career prospects drive many of the best of those students to more promising professions, such as medicine, law, or finance.

The shortage narrative dates back more than fifty years. In 1957, during an era when science and engineering were attractive careers, Russia’s surprise launch of the Sputnik satellite touched off a panic over America’s suddenly threatened scientific primacy. It inspired huge increases in federal funding for STEM education that by the early 1970s had swamped the job market. In the 1980s, a National Science Foundation study, motivated by concern about possible future increases in the cost of hiring scientists, raised another false alarm about looming shortages. Denounced by experts for methodological flaws and ultimately disavowed by an nsf director in congressional testimony, the study nonetheless bolstered support for the 1990 Immigration Act that reshaped national policy to admit more foreign scientists and engineers. The tech boom of the late 1990s spurred yet another round of dire prophecies, even though a report at the time by Congress’s General Accounting Office found no evidence to support the idea of a shortage.

The latest shortage panic began with the 2005 publication of Rising Above the Gathering Storm, an almost freakishly influential National Academies report bemoaning the supposed inability of the American educational system to fill the nation’s need for STEM workers and meet the perceived challenge of India and China to American technological supremacy. The report, produced by a committee headed by Norman Augustine, a retired chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin, immediately grabbed media attention. Thomas Friedman, whose own best-seller about the rise of America’s Asian rivals, The World Is Flat, appeared that same year, highlighted Storm in his New York Times column. Multiple Storm editions and a 2011 sequel have kept the scarcity narrative firmly in the public’s mind ever since.

There was another study of the scientific workforce published in 2005 by the National Academies, however, that was mostly ignored by the press. Bridges to Independence, produced by a committee chaired by Thomas Cech, the Nobel laureate in chemistry, documented a genuine shortage not of homegrown scientists but of viable career opportunities for those scientists. It also detailed the damage that the resulting “crisis of expectation” for young PhDs trapped in an overcrowded job market was doing to the nation’s research enterprise.

But it was Storm, not Bridges, that became the script for the national discussion, as Congress enacted the America COMPETES Act that included provisions to increase the number of STEM graduates from America’s universities.

Why the difference? Perhaps it’s because proponents of the scarcity narrative typically publicize their views in press releases, while the labor-force experts rely on scholarly papers. Or maybe simplistic narratives of America in decline are just more appealing to the press than the less-dramatic reality.

Still, sometimes the message of those more scholarly efforts does get through. During that July hearing on Capitol Hill, Senator Jeff Sessions, in the wake of Ronil Hira’s testimony, told a proponent of the scarcity myth that “I think [Dr. Hira] is fundamentally right.”

It’s time that the media started listening, too. 


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Beryl Lieff Benderly is a fellow at the American Association for the Advancement of Science.