Without a right-to-know law, investigative journalism in Spain is virtually nonexistent. The only exceptions come when politicians provide the press with tips about one another. Even in countries where public access is broad, investigative journalism takes time, and is labor intensive, making it a hard sell to media anywhere struggling through the great recession. Add to that the difficulties in accessing even basic data, and it is not surprising that the Spanish media rarely break significant stories.
“We’re very handicapped by the lack of access to information,” said Lola Galán, a reporter for the Sunday edition of El País. “It can be highly laborious here just to get crumbs, fragments of data. It all depends on the goodwill of the interlocutor in the ministry, but journalists are systematically denied the most irrelevant data, things that in no way involve something like national security. There’s a huge shortage of investigative journalism here.”
There is one bright spot, in terms of transparency. Economic journalists have been able to get solid information on Spain’s government debt woes because standard EU accounting rules require disclosure of a wide range of data, including government revenue, expense, budget deficit, and total debt outstanding.
If a domestic transparency bill does become law in Spain, the only way it becomes effective is if journalists use it. Spain’s other big journalistic challenge—its highly politicized press—may be a limiting factor. Television, radio, and newspapers at national, regional, and local levels are generally aligned with a political party, and this is frequently reflected in their news content, as well as on their editorial pages. In addition, media are often beholden to public administrations for funds. For instance, Catalonia, the autonomous region of which Barcelona is the capital, actively encourages and promotes the use of the Catalan language—outlawed under Franco. Depending on their circulation, newspapers that publish in Catalan can receive the equivalent of more than $1.35 million a year from the Catalan government, the Generalitat de Catalunya. The Generalitat also funds Catalonia’s public radio and television network’s annual budget with the equivalent of some $470 million. Such subsidized media are highly reluctant to root out and reveal wrongdoing in the Generalitat.
The Federation of Journalists Associations of Spain, representing journalists from all over Spain, has long called for a right-to-know law, but many journalists are skeptical of how much such a law would be used. Xavier Mas de Xaxàs, a reporter with Barcelona’s venerable daily, La Vanguardia, said that most journalists today would not use a public access law because their employers do not want them doing these kinds of stories. News content, or lack thereof, is too strongly politicized, according to Mas de Xaxàs, La Vanguardia’s Washington correspondent from 1995 to 2002. “In Spain, the control of the media by political parties is a natural control now, the political powers don’t even have to strain to maintain it,” he said. “It’s the media themselves that want to be controlled, because the state keeps them alive.”
It was not always so, he lamented. “After Franco died, during the transition to democracy, there was a lot of energy put into informing and investigating. The people were demanding transparency. That all lasted until the mid-1980s, but it has disappeared. How could we have gotten to where we are today? It’s a failure of the profession and the society.”
Mas de Xaxàs does, however, see a glimmer of hope in the handful of young bloggers across Spain who are beginning to publish investigative work at sites like notecalles.info or wikidiario.info, both of which he helped to establish. A new transparency law, coupled with a no-cost place to publish and a potentially huge audience, could create a new generation of investigative journalists. “Anybody who comes along with the kind of journalism that really informs the public is going to devour the Spanish market,” he said. “If they begin to report and inform in the Anglo-Saxon style—simple and direct, using contrasting sources in well-structured and well-written pieces—they would be a huge hit. There’s a market waiting.”