Nushin Rashidian, George Civeris, and Pete Brown — with Emily Bell and Abigail Hartstone —are the authors of this report. Nushin Rashidian is the research lead on the Center’s Platforms and Publishers project. George Tsiveriotis is a senior research fellow at the Tow Center. Pete Brown is the Center’s research director. Emily Bell is Tow’s founding director, and a leading thinker, commentator, and strategist on digital journalism. Abigail Hartstone served as lead editor on this report.