Nushin Rashidian, Pete Brown, and Elizabeth Hansen — with Emily Bell, Jonathan Albright, and Abigail Hartstone —are the authors of this report. Nushin Rashidian is the research lead on the Center’s Platforms and Publishers project. Pete Brown and Elizabeth Hansen are senior research fellows at Tow. Emily Bell is the Center’s founding director, and a leading thinker, commentator, and strategist on digital journalism. Jonathan Albright is the research director at Tow; his work focuses on the analysis of socially-mediated news events, misinformation and propaganda, and trending topics. Abigail Hartstone served as lead editor on this report.